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DRAUGA Ahrimanian Yatuk Dinoih MICHAEL W. FORD DRAUGA Ahrimanian Yatuk Dinoih By Michael W. Ford Illustrated by Kitti Solymosi & Mitchell Nolte ISBN 978-1500413064 Copyright © 2014 by Michael W. Ford All rights reserved. No part of this book, in part or in whole, may be reproduced, transmitted, or utilized, in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission in writing from the publisher, except for brief quotations in critical articles, books and reviews. All images without explicit copyright citations are in public domain. Art collage by Michael W. Ford unless otherwise indicated. First Soft cover edition 2014 Succubus Productions Information: Succubus Productions PO Box 926344 Houston, TX 77292 US Website: http://www.luciferianwitchcraft.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org CONTENTS Introduction Ahrimanian Laws Theory of Ahrimanian Ritual PART ONE: Origins of Yatuk Dinoih…………..pg 15 The Rig Veda Mitanni Indo-Aryan Gods Aryan-Indian War-Tribes Haumavarka (Haoma-wolves and Lycanthropy) The Origins of Zoroastrianism Achaemenid Empire Medes (Magi) Achaemenid Persians & Avestan Gods Pontus, Hellenistic Cults & Ohrmazd Kommagene & Zeus Oromasdes Hellenic & Persian Syncretism Alexander III of Macedon Hellenic & Parthian Period Parthian Empire Sassanian Empire Mandaean & the World Of Darkness Manichaean Kingdom of Darkness Yezidi & Shaitan PART TWO: Mazdean Deities & Cosmology……….pg 52 Avestan Cosmology The Void & Darkness of Ahriman Eastern Iranian Cosmology Ahura Mazda Mithra Verethraghna Amesha Spentas Yazatas Fravashis Fire Cults Basic Religious Foundation of The Avesta & Theology Of Zoroastrianism Zoroaster the First Sacrificer Elamite Ritual Texts from Persepolis Zoroaster & Occult Practices The Luminaries Seven Planets of Ahriman The Robe of Ahriman PART THREE: Avestan Demonology……………pg 86 Daeva-Yasna Magians & the Daeva-Cult Th; e Daemon Drauga Druguvantem Hierarchy of Ahrimanian Demonology Ahriman & Archdaevas Descriptions of the Daevas PART FOUR: Yatuk Dinoih –Persian Sorcery & Witchcraft…pg 194 Abhicarika – The Circle in Invocation Circle of Primal Darkness Triangle of Ahrimanian Evocation Times of Ritual Formula of Ritual Formula of Hymns & Invocation Ritual Tools & Their Purpose Sama Atar - Fire Vessel Athame Chant of Blessing Of Ritual Weapons Pestle & Mortar Offering Bowls for Libations Libations (Pouring Out Liquid) To the Daevas Astovidat & Druj Nasu – Using Human and Reptile Bones & Remains Preparing the Ritual Chamber PART FIVE: Daeva-Yasna Ceremonies of The Demons……210 Staota Yatukan Chants Infernal Names Of Power Darknening of The Flame Consecrating The Fire To Ahriman & The Daevas Kem Na Mainyu Ahrimanian Spirit (Consecration Of The Black Fire) Incantations of Ahrimanian Darkness Ahunwar-Ahriman Sacred Mantra Of Yatukih Padyab-Arimanius Nirang-I Âharman Âdar Sâma Gate of Arezura Invocation of Az-Jeh Ceremony of Haumavarka Var-Nirang Aharman (Ceremony of the Ordeal of Ahriman) Afrin of Dahman Afrinagan of Aeshma Ahrimanian Yoga The Four Hells Afrinagan of Dozakh Afrinagan of Duzhvacangh Evil-Speech PART SIX: Hymns to Vedic Daevas & Asuras…..pg 246 Invocations of Indra Invocation of the Maruts Ardvi Anahita Hymn to Mithra Hymn to the Sun Hymn to the Moon BIBLIOGRAPHY Az-Jeh with Sigil by Kitti Solymosi To the god Areimanios Prince of this World ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank Hope Marie for persevering through my journey and ultimately understanding the cost and achievements of Yatuk Dinoih. Thank you to Kitti Solymosi, a Pairikas whose ability to keep up with my obsessions between text and illustration are impressive; whose art inspires the evolution of sorcery herein and for staying the course. Thank you also to Mitchell Nolte who was patient during my preparation of this work as well. I want to thank the ArchDaevas and Druj who challenged and inspired with experience and insight. The god Areimanios who’s many Deific Masks opened a great wealth of insight to my path. The Order of Phosphorus who had to suffer my absence during the intense periods of preparation. To those mentors of my initiation which guided me here; your contribution is never forgotten. To my fellow Luciferians who are focused on the practice of Adversarial Magick, Yatukan and Vampiric Sorcery and less concerned with arguing trivial philosophical negativities; to those Luciferians who use my books to open gateways and manifest desire in the here and now – hail! To my family including reptiles and animals; to my friends including Adam, Alex, Bill and Mary Beth; thanks also to Magister Dualkarnain and the Priesthood of the Adversary. INTRODUCTION I am proud to present a grimoire which has been many years in the making. When I was self-initiated into the Ahrimanian cultus and invigorated my Daemon with the magical name of Akhtya Dahak Azal’ucel, I was aware that my work before me was unclear in detail, however meticulous in vision towards what I must accomplish. Luciferianism has unleashed a modern perception over ancient pantheons, numerous cultures and potential for power. The Yatuk Dinoih, the ever-transforming shadow-grimoire has during the course of time, awakened the daevas and powers of darkness into a final form of Drauga. Drauga is a dedicated grimoire which is verse and sigil, the Yatukan sorceries invoking the primal darkness of Ahriman and the ArchDaevas. The historical study and foundation of both the Yatuk Dinoih and Zoroastrianism is intended to provide clues and knowledge towards opening the Gate of Arezura, that is, Hell. Drauga is not for every Luciferian; this is a magical tome which requires the balance of Will-DesireBelief to summon forth the demons of darkness. This is a path into darkness and requires a dedication to magick and spiritual insight. Every act must be with willed purpose and a clear intent. Utilize the Ahrimanian Laws and nourish your Yatukan temple of self from the eyes of the profane. Don’t attempt to prove the sorceries herein to anyone; experience is the validation required without some feeble thought of blind faith. This grimoire has been many years in creation with origins in the Characith Lunar Lodge in 1997, Coven Nachttoter and Coven Malefica in 2002. The path of Ahrimanian Darkness has over the years brought much insight into power, succession of energy and the manipulation of elementals from at first trial and error, entering the Underworld of Dozakh and embracing the daevas as both creative and destructive forces within nature and the physical body. I made a sacred oath in my Yatukih circle when assuming the daemonic name Akhtya many years ago; I would search to the source of the arcana of sorcerous texts of the Yatuk Dinoih and reveal the origins and practice outside of the Zoroastrian tenets. This required a meticulous study of Vedic, Parthian, Sassanian, Hellenic and Roman sources along with the Avestan, Pahlavi and Middle Persian language with the etymological clues resting in shadow. I quickly understood with syncretism and assimilation of pantheons over time that Ahriman was both the terrible and devouring Prince of this World and King of Darkness; the daevas were both beneficial and destructive in nature and sorcerous practice; Ahura Mazda when understood from the syncretism of Hellenic influence was akin to Baal and Zeus was powerful in maintaining or sustaining order and finally that Luciferianism has a center in the modern foundation of Yatukan practice. Do not merely dabble in this grimoire; fully embrace it if you are to practice Yatukan Rites and seize the power of this world. Do not concern yourself with non-existent “truths” such as “atheistic” and “theistic”; you will find surety in ideological application and utilizing your natural predilection towards magick. Michael W. Ford Akhtya Dahak Azal’ucel July 2014 AHRIMANIAN LAWS A Basis of Order in which you center your ideological approach is essential; especially when working with chaos and darkness the Yatus will be tested and challenged. The following Ahrimanian Laws will serve you well if you move beyond theory and utilize in practice even before you cast your first circle. The Lawless spirituality and carnal indulgence of the Ahrimanian Yatus (sorcerer) is a modern spiritual teaching within the Luciferian Path. To the uninitiated, Ahrimanian initiation into the cultus of sorcery and witchcraft is the demonic and perverted rites opposite to “White” or orthodox “light” magick. The outsider will see only darkness as evil and an alien force which destroys and corrupts. Those who indulge in the rites of the Yatuk Dinoih are evil and degenerate. While the Left Hand Path can dangerous to the weak of mind, Ahrimanian Magick is in reality closer to the powers of nature and of the ascended individual transforming consciousness into a living god in life – here and now! The initiation of “opposite” or “shadow” initiation is not centered on destroying morality and personal ethics; rather it is founded on breaking the restrictive spiritual and carnal laws. The Yatus will liberate the subconscious mind from the guilt-ridden slave-mentality deeply harming the individual; embracing Ahrimanian powers as both symbols of our primal instinct and carnal desire. In another sense, the darkness is perceived as the origin and restful foundation which we use to bring power to our conscious mind; one may not exist without the other. 1. The Ahrimanian and Luciferian must treat individual life according to the laws of the land; children and the elderly should be treated with kindness. Culture must awaken by the example you live daily; the ancient values of ambition to selfdetermined greatness with disciplined indulgence. 2. The Ahrimanian holds not spiritual or carnal idols, nonexistent deities or demons above the self. You are the beginning and end as you alone are the responsible temple of mind-body-spirit. 3. While spiritual interpretation will be unique from other Luciferians (as an individual), you must remain considerate that imposing your potentially subjective spiritual beliefs is to be kept private and shared with those who have sought your insight. Do not waste energy on attempting to argue the atheistic or theistic to the rejection of other individuals’ views. No one likes a Christian who flashes a “good-guy badge”, annoying everyone with their fantasy of Christianity and then rejecting Science for “blind faith”. 4. Ahrimanian Yatukih initiation is a balance between the primal and modern, thus the rituals and practices of the Yatus are to be kept from the profane; share your experience with those who also are known in the Black Flame of Ahriman and the cultus. 5. The Luciferian and Ahrimanian is skeptical and questions everything. Use the imagination to inspire your sorcery and at the end of the day, understand that you are responsible for the outcome. As the Ahrimanian Yatus would proclaim, “Ahriman and the Daevas are worshipped as a part of the self and honored as powers manifest by our accomplishments and successes.” 6. Look carefully to find your own perception between Science and Magick; study at will scientific results, theories and use the imagination and the fantasy of the ritual chamber to bring the reality of Ahrimanian forces into the material world. 7. Do not over-estimate your worth with self-delusion; test yourself and improve upon your strengths and weaknesses when possible. THEORY OF AHRIMANIAN RITUAL The Yatuk Dinoih is organized into specifically two types of Ahrimanian Magick: Ritual to Attain (be it carnal/materialistic or spiritual/insight) and Ceremony to Sustain. Anton LaVey defined Satanic Magic as a key and tool for the Black Adept and the infernal powers emanating from the will of the Black Magician. Yatuk Dinoih is not merely a carnal approach; it is also spiritual with instinctual awareness of nature itself. The Ahrimanian Yatus operates in a similar arena of willdesire-belief. Like the Daeva-yasna (devilworshippers) of the Mithraic cults, the modern Yatus uses fantasy and primal desires to obtain carnal desire and equally spiritual empowerment in life here and now. There is neither diabolic punishment nor heavenly reward; merely the wisdom to gather power in both the flesh and spirit of the Yatus. The Yatus does not perform Magick to be kept in thrall of dark or light powers; sorcery must be a servant and tool to the bold and brave masters of this world. It is the unspoken thoughts and desires which our minds commit our resources which ultimately manifest as a benefit or determent to our life. This is why perception and controlling our pattern of thoughts is highly significant to initiation itself. We are our greatest ally and vilest enemy all unto the self! Rituals are aimed at attaining a goal, be it short or long term. This may be the yearning for knowledge and insight; this also may be some nearly out of reach carnal desire. It is the skill of the Yatus who may see the laws of the earth and the nearly invisible line which leads to the temporary satisfaction of attainment. Desire is everything, once achieved it becomes over time the soil for the seeds of weakness to be planted. Enjoy your attained pleasures, yet always seek greater challenges. Ceremonies are rooted in sustaining and inspiring elevation of power. Performing a ceremony to Indra as the conqueror is to use the power you offer to in overcoming the obstacles of life, sustaining via order those things obtained. Ohrmazd may be perceived as how the Achaemenid kings viewed this god: they would be very brutal in striking down their competition, while recognizing the “good” in their victory under the sustaining power of Ohrmazd. Sorcery in balancing reason fantasy is in all honesty being a living god creating, sustaining, compelling and destroying according to desire. Use the principles of life and see the very thin thread which connects cause and effect. A skilled Yatus is one who is able to connect the patterns which govern this world and use them at will. When one becomes ‘arrogant’ then the laziness and over value of self brings eventual destruction and pain. Be confident and honor your power and achievement; never over value yourself and diminish your potential rivals. Luciferianism if applied with the laws of and logic with the foundation of desire and PART ONE: ORIGINS OF YATUK DINOIH As a Luciferian, it is my sacred oath to the gods above and below to present their origins and traits in a modern sense. In order to accomplish this, a picture of the culture and pantheon in question must be established. I attempt to do this in the structure and nature of this grimoire. This is not Zoroastrianism, it is Ahrimanian Yatuk Dinoih. Herein I shall establish the etymological, historical, mythological, ideological and magical foundations for modern Luciferian practice. THE RIG VEDA The Rig Veda is a collection of Indo-Aryan hymns and spells in Vedic Sanskrit and is dated roughly from 1500 to 1200 (B.C.E.). The hymns are methods of ritual honor and myths of the Asuras and Daevas. These are the sources for records on the Daevas prior to their complete demonic transformation in the pantheon of the Zoroastrians. Between 2000 and 1500 B.C.E. the Aryan tribes invaded India and Iran, introducing the gods Mithra, Indra, Savar and those ancient ones who would be powerful deities later on. THE INDO-ARYAN HURRIANS & MITANNI As the City-States of northern Mesopotamia grew weak around 1500 B.C.E., incursions of who are called the Hurrians allowed control in the region. One tribe of Aryan horsemen who were named after their national god, Mitra, the Mitanni, conquered and settled in a Middle Eastern territory. Among the Hurrian tribes, the Mitanni was the strongest and soon dominated the region. The Mitanni was an ancient kingdom in northern Mesopotamia which extended into Syria and was in greatest influence and power from the 16th to 14th Century BCE. The Mitanni Kingdom was centered near the source of the Habor (known as the Khabur river today) located in northeast Syria. This region controls the most important communication and trade routes between Mesopotamia and Anatolia. The New Kingdom Egyptians knew the Mitanni as the Naharin and they were respected for the control they maintained which extended from Kirkuk and the Zagros mountains into Assyria and ending at the Mediterranean. The capital of the Mitanni, Wassukkani (also Vasukhani, ‘Mine of Wealth’), is considered to be found by archeologists as Tell al-Fakhariyeh (Wassukkani) located in the Khabur valley. The Mitanni have been a difficult kingdom to identity via archeological finds, lack of temple-dedications, buildings and traditional tell-tale evidence typical of city sites in the region have been fleeting. The reason for this is that the Mitanni was a feudal kingdom; areas were ruled by warrior nobility and a system structured after the Babylonian judiciary system. The maryannu were a chariot-warrior caste, they held the highest ranks in their ruling society based on the traits of the conquering spirit. These noblemen owned vast estates in which they bred large numbers of horses for their chariots. It is the maryannu and the Mitanni Kingdom which brought many of the gods of the Indo-Aryan pantheon to these lands. The word ‘maryannu’ is derived from the Old Indian ‘marya’, ‘warrior’. Along with their chariot corps, organized and highly trained, the maryannu utilized the composite bow which later had influence on the Hittite military structure. The earliest evidence for the Indo-Aryan language and deities is found in Northern Syria instead of India. The Mitanni spoke Hurrian but also used an IndoEuropean dialect which would at the time of the Rig Vedas be known as Sanskrit. MITANNI INDO-ARYAN GODS In a treaty inscribed between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the first evidence for the Indo-Aryan gods later known from the Rig Veda, except that the Mitanni conquered their own area in Northern Syria. At their greatest extent of power, the Mitanni ruled from the Mediterranean Sea to the Zagros Mountains in Persia. The treaty between the Mitanni and Hittites, swears in their tradition on the gods of both the Hittites and Mitanni. The King of the Mitanni named several Indo-Aryan gods along with the Hurrian deities honored around. The Indo-Aryan gods, later known as Daevas or demons which rivaled the tribal pastoral Iranians, have origin with the Bronze Age maryannu (warriors) who subdued the Syrian region and for several hundred years, were a tribal-nomadic “kingdom” which was different from the other kingdoms who held specific “centers” of their dominion via cities. The Mitanni is a unique kingdom in that they were centered in Northern Mesopotamia, overlords of the Assyrians for a time and they included the Babylonian and Syrian pantheons as well. The Aryan gods of the Mitanni are clearly strong in the culture of the maryannu, whose skills in battle model their mythology of Indra, Mitra and Nasatya. The known Aryan gods of the Mitanni were: Mi-it-ra (Vedic Mitra), Aru-na (Varuna), In-da-ra (Indra) and Nasa-at-tiya (Nasatya) The Mitanni revered Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Soma, Svar, Rta, Nasatya which are known early from the Rig Veda and later the Daevas who were powerful under the Lord of the Earth, Ahriman or Angra Mainyu. Ahriman would not manifest until the Achaemenid Persian Periods and would be called “Druj” or “The Lie”. During this period, these gods were conquering and order compelling deities, not the Ahrimanic destructive forces. To understand this contrast, think of it merely as origins of understanding on the basis of human need and the desire to conquer and subdue others. The Daevas of Ahriman are veiled in the darkness of Ahriman; when the Yatus can enter the darkness and perceive the nature of the Daeva then this seeming duality is destroyed and balance is established. As a modern practitioner of Luciferian Magick, this is a clear indication of how pantheons with seemingly (on the surface) no connections have in reality, a deep association which may be understood to utilize in sorcery. The Vedic Nasatya (Naonhaithya) and Asvins ARYAN-INDIAN WAR-TRIBES In the Bronze Age, from roughly 1700 to 1200 B.C.E. tribes of warrior-males, riding chariots and horses who found invasion routes into Iran and Northern India. The Mitanni, a tribe which settled in Northern Mesopotamia and subjugated the Assyrians, also was associated with this warrior-caste. The maryannu, a common name translating ‘warriors’, were known in various forms as chariot and horse raiders whose tribal behaviors were based in religious ecstasy, spiritual lycanthropy and honored traits of strength and conquering. These brotherhoods are known also in both the Avesta and Rig Veda, their rituals are similar to that of the Germanic berserkers and share an Indo-European heritage. Some Scythian tribes also held similar warrior-initiations and associations after the IndoAryans. HAUMAVARKA Haoma-Wolves Cult of Lycanthropy and Martial Brotherhoods During the Avestan period, the Indo-Aryan succession of warriorcults retained some of the cultural fierceness in ancient Iran. Among these tribes, a particular of the Saka (Scythians) existed several martial-brotherhoods who were called ‘Haumavarka’, translating ‘Haoma-wolves’. This brotherhood existed also from the Vedic influence of the mairyo of Iran. These warriors, like their Germanic distant cousins, utilized wolf skin, Haoma (intoxicating elixir) and invoked the frenzy of ‘Aeshma’ to then go forth in battle and cattle-raids against pastoralists. In Vedic India, the cult of Rudra with his wolves Bhava and Sava, joined with a group of eleven Rudriyas haunted the woods. In the Avesta, the mairya is described metaphorically as a “vehrkem bizangrem daevayasnem”, ‘twolegged, demonworshipping wolf’. The haena, known by the Indians as ‘sena’, were composed of a troop of warrior-males, initiated into the cult and were named ‘Vehrka’ or ‘wolf’. Their military symbol was known as a Drafsa, a black banner with the symbol of a dragon (serpent) and sometimes a dragon with the head of a wolf. Other symbols of their cult were the Guzr, the ‘bloody mace’ of Aeshma; the Vajra (Vedic “lightning” or “axe” of Indra) and the spear. The Mairya or Haumavarka wore their hair in braids (called ‘gaesu’ or ‘braids carrier’) and wore leather or fought naked, only with a leather belt. Prior to battle, the mairya would drink Haoma, then invoking a fury (Aeshma) allowing the mental transformation into a wolf. The Haumavarka were joined with women called jahika or jahi (prostitute and Avestan Demonesses) who had sex with the single males. The Haumavarka (Haoma-wolves) are closely related to the Indo-European warrior cults of the Dacians, Thracians and Germans and no doubt find source in long forgotten traditions. The purpose of lycanthropy is to release often controlled emotions, invoking the pure instinct and basic animalistic qualities. From a magical perspective, the spiritual awakening of the therionick atavism, summoned from a conscious desire to release the primal instinct in an emotional state is intoxicating and a power center in which the Yatus may gain insight and strength. Ahrimanian sorcery, Yatukih, inspires the individual to explore, embrace and control the darkness as both the well-spring of energy, motivation and desire to the conscious insight of utilizing your instincts in everyday life in order to gain success and power. At some point, you are encouraged to explore and recognize your ‘servitor’ animal, similar to what would be known as a ‘totem’ animal. THE ORIGINS OF ZOROASTRIANISM In the ancient world prior to the rise of monotheistic and a cosmology based upon duality, the pantheons were closely balanced in the deep roots as a specific manifestation or phenomena in nature and having a primordial place within the human psyche. There was no clear ‘good’ or ‘evil’ as like humans, the Deific Masks (Gods and Demons) had both creative and destructive aspects, just as nature itself! Good was what benefited the collective (the tribe), evil was the enemy. Much like the Judeo-Christian Bible, the Avesta is a compilation or different texts which over an extended period of time, were passed from word to mouth and later written down in different languages. The Avesta is mainly a prayer and invocation book, while the Bible of the Christians is more literal stories and prayers as a secondary aspect. As you will discover, the ancient Persian lands shared different tribal customs and were polytheistic; recognizing many different Gods. When Zoroaster began his reforms, he maintained the polytheistic traditions with the exception that the God of Wisdom, ‘Ahura Mazda’ held a prominent place. The Avesta was compiled around 600 C.E. however there are sections much older than that. The oldest section in the Avesta is the Gathas which are seventeen in number. The etymology of the hymns and the style recorded indicate they have similar origins to the Rig Veda hymns, dated between 1500 and 1200 B.C.E. in Punjab. In a basic clue, the Gathic word, ‘ahura’, translates ‘Lord’ and the same as the Vedic word ‘asura’. The second word, ‘Mazda’ translates, ‘Wise’. During the Hellenic period after Alexander the Great, from the far reaches from Sogdian lands through Bactra, assimilations aligned many traits of gods and they evolved anew; although Alexander was by no means the one who integrated the many cultures as nomadic tribes such as the Scythians and Dahae raided pastoral, settled lands prior. The Rig Veda hymns are centered around the gods of ancient India and by tribal interaction and trade throughout a many number of years, the Vedic worship of ‘Daevas’ began to change according to the Indo-Iranian tribal cultures and priesthoods. While the Vedic and Gathic language indeed have their roots from one ancestor, they did develop differently. An excellent example of this is of course ‘Ahura’, ‘Lord’ and the Vedic ‘asura’ translates, ‘demon’. In further evidence of the linguistic differences, Vedic ‘Deva’, translating ‘Gods’ in the Gathic form is ‘Daeva’, ‘Demon’ which allows a cultural balance in exploring both adversarial aspects of the ancient pantheons and cultural settings of the Vedic and Gathic tribal world. ACHAEMENID EMPIRE 550 – 330 B.C.E. The Achaemenid Empire, known also as the Persian Empire, was established by Cyrus the Great in 550 B.C.E. and established the first advanced administration and rule of the near east after the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The Persians were centered in the Kingdom of Anshan which was a satrapy or client ruling kingdom of the Medes; Cyrus was half-Median and overthrew Astyages, the last Median King. Cyrus went on to conquer and unite the Median, Lydian, Karian, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Armenia, Babylonia, Syria, Palestine, Judea, Sogdian, Bactra Cambyses, Darius and alliances with Nomadic tribes), Arachosia, Northern India, Thrace and Macedonian territories. and under his descendants such as Xerxes conquered Egypt, Scythia (via This extensive empire was for a time, administered by a Persian or Median nobleman (or local nobility) known as a Satrap. The Achaemenids allowed to a great extent freedom of the native religion and ruling cults of the various satrapies’ and were see great syncretism and assimilation of Greek and Persian gods based on their associations to nature and humanity. Persian Satrap (from Achaemenid coin) from Cilicia (Tarsus) in Asia Minor. The Zoroastrian cult was strong among the Sogdian and Bactrian tribes and soon the Persians. The Medians practiced Magick, Sorcery and a practice similar to the Zoroastrians. We see during the Achaemenid period that Zeus was assimilated with Ahura Mazda, Anahita with Astarte, etc. The Achaemenid King Darius I utilized a central cult of Ahura Mazda to attempt unification and suppression of hostile cults and ruling nobility who opposed him; this, like Christianity was imposed to establish political control over the lands. As the Achaemenid Persians ruled over Asia Minor, the Greek temple-cults and pantheon was assimilated and respected by the near eastern nobility and this allowed further syncretism to occur over time. This assimilation was further capitalized upon by Alexander the Great and the Seleucid Kings after the Achaemenids. When modern images depict the Persian Empire, “Zoroastrian” as a monotheistic cult becomes synonymous with their rule. This, according to historical evidence and surviving sources reveals that such could not be further from the truth. The Zoroastrian Cult of Ahura Mazda was primary among the nobility, yet other pantheons were tolerated as long as it did not bring political turmoil. I will as briefly as possible, present examples and a trail of evidence demonstrating this fact. Luciferianism has roots in this type of syncretism and to understand the line of succession is to have a grasp on the path of Magick and Sorcery found herein. Ahura Mazda from Achaemenid coin from Tarsus by Kitti Solymosi Previous Page: Angra Mainyu entering the Sky and Earth by Kitti Solymosi MEDES The Magi Priests & Magicians of Achaemenid Persia The Median tribes were originally composed of the Bousai, Paretakeonoi, Strouchates, Arizantoi, Boudioi and Magoi. According to the historian Herodotus, these tribes were united under the leadership of the first Median king Deioces. The Median kings’ dominated Iran and even subjected the Persian tribes as a satrapy prior to the rise of Cyrus. Astyages, the last Median king, was the grandfather of the Persian Cyrus. Astyages (which means ‘spear thrower’) was a prototype of the myth of Zohak (Azi Dahaka) in later Zoroastrian myths. The Median priesthood were a cultic group who practiced what is now known as ‘Magic’, the term ‘Magus’ is the title of an initiated Median priest. The Mages (called also ‘Magi’) performed the sacred fire rites of the Achaemenid kings and retained a high office in the empire. The Median nobility to some extent revolted and one assumed the diadem of king prior to Darius I, who in inscriptions associated them with being of “The Lie”. After Gaumata was defeated by Darius I, the Median nobility retained their high office. The Medes and their cultic practices spread into Babylon, Bactra, Syria and Cappadocia; the rituals of the Magi in Asia Minor earned them the title of ‘firekindlers’; rituals involve a great sacred fire with the Magi wearing a tiara which covers the mouth. The Magi hold bundles of rods and perform chants. The sacred fire temples of the Magi were guarded constantly by the priesthood, the fire of which they call ‘unquenchable’. The Magi would enter the shrine each day with the baresman and patidana and chant in front of the fire for an hour. When the Magus enters the chamber, he would put on his tiara, places wood on the fire and recites an incantation. During the time of Xerxes (420 B.C.E.), the Mages sacrificed white horses by driving them into the river Strymon, obtaining omens. A custom was also to bury some alive in offering to the gods. The Mages were adept in the art of necromancy and sacrificing to the dead. At the site of Troy, Xerxes instructed the Mages to offer to the dead to obtain favor. The Mages, according to Herodotus, were not restricted to the practices of traditional (and later Avestan traditions) practices; they performed incantations to appease the winds (Boreas), sacrificing also to Thetis and the Nereids to control the storms hindering the Persian army. Boreas was the Greek god of the North Winds, who commanded one of the four winds, a collective of gods known as the Anemoi. The Mages cast spells upon the wind according to Herodotus. The Greek water nymphs known as the Nereids were patron deities to sailors and fishermen, entreated for water travel and associations with the sea. Thetis was the goddess and leader of the Nereids, known for her protean forms and her power over the sea. The Mages and Goetes (sorcerers) of Xerxes were initiated into the sorceries of both Persian gods but also Greek deities when necessary. The Mages also manipulated the dead via their practice of necromancy. ACHAEMENID PERSIANS & AVESTAN GODS The legendary Persian dynasty, named from the founder Achaemenes which ruled after the overthrow of the Median King Astyages and the tribes of the Medes subjugated under the Achamenid banner in the middle of the 6th Century B.C.E. until the conquests of Alexander the Great in the year 331 B.C.E. Achaemenid Persian King fighting Ahrimanian Beasts with Ahura Mazda above as Khvarenah (Glory); notice the Babylonian Sedu-demon to the left. The empire of the Achaemenids was vast, from the Iranian lands through the east into India, the entire Mesopotamian region into Anatolia, Egypt and Syro-Palestine with some extensions into Thrace and Macedonia. In popular media today, the Achaemenid kingdom was described by the majority as a cookie-cutter ‘Zoroastrian’ type in which the official state religion was that of Zoroaster and his Gathas and Avestan texts. Zoroastrian ‘orthodox’ religious ideals are more or less a construct by Western scholars towards the end of the 19th Century. Many presented the Gathas as a ‘reformed’ religion of the mysterious Zoroaster.1 In order for the Yatuk Dinoih to be understood and practiced to the fullest extent of dark spirituality, one must have a basic understanding of the many cultural-religious influences which influenced the manifestation of the Adversary as Angra Mainyu. Ahura Mazda held up by Yazatas with Zoroaster encircled from Persian seal The adoption of the cult of Zoroastrianism by the early Achaemenid Kings as a Royal Edict provided a structure of divine order and balance in a time when revolts and invasions were common place. The temples of the Daevas and Indo-Persian Vedic gods of India were deeply spread throughout the lands of Persia. The Hittites indeed have inscriptions of Daevas in treaties recorded on tablets long before Achaemenid rule. We will begin with basic origins of Ahura Mazda and the manifestation of the gods and daevas from the Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian and Sassanian Periods prior to the Zoroastrian cult migrating into India at the start of Islam. This is not such a deep history lesson as a clue to the powers inherent in nature, humanity and the many ‘Deific Masks’ the gods and daevas wear. 1 See The Achaemenids and the Avesta, P.O. Skjaervo; Birth of the Persian Empire Vol. I PONTUS, HELLENISTIC CULTS & OHRMAZD In the Hellenistic Period, the lands of Asia Minor were at their height of being a highly varied and unique assimilation of individualistic kingdoms composed of Greek, Anatolian, Galatian, Pontic, Karian, Cilician, Paphlagonian and other cultures. The Pontic Kingdom, an interesting syncretism of both Achaemenid Persian culture and Hellenic influence inspired the transformation of temple-cults and the interpretation of the pantheons which are a part of the people and their ruling kingdoms. Zeus is widely known in Modern Greek myth as the singular sky-god who ruled the pantheon; during the Hellenic period after Alexander the Great, there are records manifestations of Zeus with different cult associations throughout Asia Minor. In Pontus and Paphlagonia, Zeus was a protector and a savior in various spheres of life not only for the local population but the ruling kings. of many unique epithets and city Zeus had epithets which revealed his chthonic features in addition to his role as protector, savior (soter) and guardian of families. Zeus held sway over the physical order of the environment and those living in it; the patron of the land, villages and cities and also being the god of fertility associated with water, landproductivity (farming) and as Zeus Chthonis, the Underworld god of the dead (Pluto or Hades). Connected with the Eleusinian mysteries of Demeter and Kore in Pontus, Zeus is known by the epithet Epikarpios as well as the Phrygian and Karian cults of the Mother of the Gods (Cybele) and Attis. Zeus also had a role as protector of cities, keeper of gates, defender of forts and citadels with the epithet Zeus Pyleios (Pylon) in the Pontic kingdom. We see here Zeus is a deity of natural forces as well as the will and strength of the military cult protecting the lands. During the reign of the Mithridatids, Pontus honored Zeus Stratios as the patron god of the warriors and soldiers, protector of the Pontic dynasty. Zeus Stratios was also identified with the Achamenid Ahura Mazda, the patron of the Persian dynasty. Mithridates Eupator conducted a sacrifice to Zeus Stratios which reveals the assimilation with Ahura Mazda in Pontus: a great pile of wood on a high hill, a smaller pile of wood encircles then the main heap of wood; they pour libations of milk, honey, wine, oil and incense. On the lower encircling pile a banquet of bread and meat for those present and then the pile is lit and burnt in sacrifice to the god. In 73 B.C.E. prior to a continued war with Rome, Mithridates offered to Poseidon a pair of white horses by throwing them in the sea. In Persian rituals of offering to Ahura Mazda, a quadriga with eight white horses were devoted to the god (here both Zeus and Poseidon are united in Achaemenid Persia). In Cappadocia, the Magian priests had temples and altars and they were known as “keepers of fire”; descriptions explain that the priest would use a club to beat the offerings to death. During the festival of the sacred fire, the Magian priests would wear high turbans of felt wrapped around their head and covered the mouth so it would not spit or breath on the fire of Ohrmazd. The Magian would perform incantations while holding a bundle of rods. KOMMAGENE & ZEUS OROMASDES Antiochos I of Commagene (86 – 38 B.C.E.) was a descendant of the Seleucid Royal Family whose kingdom was centered in the southcentral Turkey, the capital city being ancient Samosata, located near the Euphrates. Antiochos was half-Armenian and Greek with ancestors such as the kings of Parthia and the Seleucids among others. His Greek heritage reveals blood-ties to Seleucus I Nikator (founder of the Seleucid kingdom and former hetairoi (companion guardsman) of Alexander the Great, Ptolemy I Soter (founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt). Antiochos I began construction on the giant sculptures on Mt. Nemrud and consecrated the Kommagene Ruler Cult, his own self-deification inscribed on the backs of the thrones of colossi on the east of his burial monument. The syncretistic ruler cult evolved both Persian and Greek gods and their cults which presents a nonorthodox and highly interesting representation of the cult itself. The stone colossi (giant images/statues) and their thrones (the gods are seated) are placed near their heavenly thrones (the planets). Zeus Oromasdes (Ohrmazd = Ahura Mazda) and the ‘daimons’ (referring not to lesser spirits but the visible gods; they are associated with the planets) were honored on this great height of the mountain. Stone depictions of Antiochos I and later kings are deified equally with the other gods here also. The gods honored are: Zeus Oromasdes – Zeus the sky-god associated with Ohrmazd. Apollo Mithras Helios Hermes– Apollo is identified with the Persian Mithras, Helios and Greek Hermes. Artagnes Herakles Ares – Herakles is identified with the Kommagenian deity Artagnes and Greek Ares. Kommagene – This is the personified goddess Tyche or Fortune of Kommagene. Antiochos I’s epithets (characteristics and cult titles) are centered in both the ‘deified’ and intent towards the future; not the Antiochos as a physical man but his traits, accomplishments and desired authority of his rule. As can be observed, the Hellenistic Ruler Cult is one of the key foundations from which Luciferianism has manifest in our modern times. Luciferians utilize a form of self-deification on a individualistic level, as the individual is accountable for his or her present and future fortune. One who is self-deified while living honors the potential of self-excellence in deeds and idealized traits. Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellenos (Antiochos I, the god manifest, Just and a Friend of the Romans and Greeks), one of the last Hellenistic kings, utilized the syncretism between Greek and Persian deities as a center of his cult. The cult of Antiochos was honored with a feast for two days for both his birthday and coronation date; the essence of ‘Magick’ is presented in his cultic aims as well. “prudent men it would be pious to observe, not only for our own honor, but also for the dearest hopes for the personal fortune of each individual…my voice proclaimed this law, and the will of the gods ratified it.”2 HELLENIC & PERSIAN SYNCRETISM Assimilating Deities Syncretism is a word which means to unite traits and common attributions of deities from several manifestations (various citygods) and even pantheons. During the Hellenistic period, Persian and Greek gods in Asia Minor, Syria and Persia were assimilated based on the deities’ traits and associations within nature and the cult. 2 The Self-Deification of Antiochos I Kommagene, ‘The Hellenistic Age from the battle of Ipsos to the death of Kleopatra VII’, Stanley Burnstein The Commagene syncretism of Antiochos I Theos was an idealistic blend of both Greek and Persian pantheons. This is important to the modern Luciferian as it offers insight and knowledge into the foundational nature of magick. Seek to understand and commonly accept these associations and a door to power and wisdom will be yours to open. One example is Apollo and the Iranian Khshathrapati. The Old Iranian divine epithet Khshathrapati, translating ‘Lord of Power’ (also Lord of Dominion) during the Achaemenid Persian period in Caria and Lycia reveals that Apollo and Khshathrapati (Aramaic ‘hstrpty’), from an inscription stele at Letoon of Xanthos, Lycia. Apollo in Greek cities was a deep and balanced god: music, beauty, death and plague including a vast prophetic power. Apollo was associated with Mithra as associated with the Sun and on the Island of Cypress Apollo is assimilated with Resheph, Canaanite/Egyptian god of plague and pestilence. In Western Anatolia, Apollo had strong chthonic associations as a god of healing and incubation groves known as Charoneia (and Plutoneia); this is the Luciferian principle that darkness is a place of rest, healing, dreams and dark instincts as a balance to the solar aspect. It was from the 5th Century B.C.E. onward that Apollo gradually became a solar god in the Hellenistic world. Like the Mesopotamian god Nergal, Apollo was associated with traveling about in the Underworld and having relation to death. The shooting of Arrows of Disease was a key power of Apollo, who also equally had the power to heal. Nergal and Apollo both are associated with ravens, snakes, lions and palm trees. In the Underworld, Apollo and Nergal are representations of the Sun (Black Sun)3. Nergal’s name, ‘Lord of the Great City’ is reference to the conception that the Underworld was organized as a great, dark, underworld city-state developed from Mesopotamian prototypes. The Iranian Khshathrapati (Lord of the City) is thus the West Iranian representation of Nergal. During the Parthian period in the city of Hatra, Nergal is depicted having snakes all around him and was called by the epithet Khshathrapati in order to avoid calling his name. The Medians, the tribes of the Achaemenid Magian priests, honored Nergal as “Lord of the City” with the epithet Khshathrapati. The sun in the Iranian cults was divinized with the name Huwar Khshaita and along with Mithra, was associated as the solar god of contracts and social agreements. ALEXANDER III OF MACEDON 356-323 B.C.E. Hellenic & Persian Assimilation Alexander III of Macedon, the son of Phillip II, was an individual who took Macedonia from a small northern Greek territory bordering Thrace, to the ancient near eastern empire as large as the Achaemenid Empire. Alexander the Great is credited with merging the ancient world and spreading Hellenic culture to the edges of India. Phillip II was the first Basileus (king) who was planning an invasion of the Persian Empire in 336 but was assassinated before he could undertake the war. 3 Apollo and Khshathrapati, the Median Nergal, at Xanthos; Martin Schwartz, University of California, Berkeley. Alexander gathered a large invasion force (still outnumbered by the Achaemenid forces, including Persian, Syrian, Bactrian, Greek and other forces) and invaded Asia Minor. Alexander defeated the Achaemenid cavalry, infantry and archers again and again to subjugate Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Babylon, Media, Persia and all the way into Bactra and Northern India. Alexander respected the pantheons of the old Achaemenid Empire and soon syncretism of the cults expanded throughout the ancient near east. Alexander incorporated eastern infantry, cavalry, archers and slingers first as mercenaries in his army. In time he created military headquarters and trained Persian, Babylonian, Bactrian and other eastern natives into Macedonian phalanx techniques. This caused some outrage in the veteran Macedonian ranks, which saw the eastern cultures as conquered people who were not equal to their right of rule. Alexander towards the end of his short reign began to change the mind of the army via the Strategos and top Macedonian companions, realizing the strength in unification. Alexander also adopted some manner of Persian dress and symbol, merging 300 Macedonian nobles into a mass wedding of eastern noblewomen at Susa. The only successor of Alexander’s Macedonians to keep his Persian/Bactrian bride was Seleucus, Apama was the daughter of Spitamenes, a Sogdian rebel who was one of Alexander’s most strategic of opponents. The Zoroastrian texts speak of Alexander as a destroyer, a reference to the burning of Persepolis and extinguishing sacred fires. In “The Book of Arda Viraf” the Macedonian was sent by Ahriman, “the hostility of the evil-destined, wicked Ashemok, the evil-doer, brought onward Alexander” and “he killed several Dasturs and judges and Herbads and Mobads and upholders of the religion”. Alexander, known as ‘Sikandar’, is one given power by Ahriman, the Menog-i Khrad explains, “And Ahriman so contemplated that Bevarasp (Azi Zohak) and Frasiyav and Alexander should be immortal”. HELLENIC & PARTHIAN PERIOD 332 B.C.E. - 224 A.D. After the conquest of Alexander III of Macedon and his death in 323 B.C.E. the former Achaemenid kingdom was re-established with Macedonian and Greek settlers throughout the former collection of Satrapies under Darius, the last Persian king. These Macedonian settlers were not directly integrated but were established in new cities of various names including “Alexander” until the re-conquest of Seleukos I Nikator. Seleukos and his son, Antiochos I Soter established new strategic cities with garrisons and merchants. The Macedonians were instructed to be respectful of the culture and temple-cults of the near eastern cities and people. Over a period of time, syncretism of Hellenic gods and Persian, Armenian, Median, Arachosian, Bactrian, Pontic, Lydian and Syrian gods began. This created a rich example of gods and how pantheons have cross-cultural similarities. The Parthians were in origins a tribe called the Parni, a branch of the Scythian terrors known as the Dahae who were nomadic raiders in the lands known as Russian Turkistan. The Dahae and dragon symbolism will be explored shortly. Arsakes, a tribal-leader of the Parni along with his brother Tiridates led a revolt in the Seleucid Satrapy of Parthia and slew the governor, Andragoras. Arsakes was crowned king of the Parni in 247 B.C.E. which set the date for the Parthian calendar. Arsakes became the throne-name for many subsequent kings who were common throughout the Achaemenid and Seleucid dynasties. PARTHIAN EMPIRE 250 B.C.E. – 226 A.D. The ancient Scythians were Central Asian nomadic horsemen (and women) who migrated to what is known now as southern Russia around the 8th Century B.C.E.; the Scythians raided both Asia Minor and Mesopotamia. The Scythians were culturally integrated with some Median tribes during the late Neo-Assyrian period shortly before the Achaemenid Empire. The Dahae were a confederation of nomadic Scythians located east of the Caspian Sea. Among the Dahae tribes was one called the Parni. The Parni invaded Iran during the Seleucid period around 250 B.C.E. and killed the ruling Satrap Andragoras, setting up their own kingdom known as the Parthians. The Parthians eventually became the successors of the Seleucid Empire by conquering Media (the capital Ecbatana was an ancient city of the Achaemenid Empire) and into Babylon and Seleucia in Mesopotamia. Then, Parthians swept back through Susa (ancient Elam) and Persia. The Parthians were called “Philhellenes” (Friend of the Greeks) and utilized their system of government and troops to maintain the lands. Syncretism of Persian and Hellenic cults was no doubt further developed during this period. Around 224 A.D. in Persia, the Sassanian Empire emerged and by revolting against the Parthians, overthrew the Dahae kings and established the new Persian Kingdom. Ardashir I, the first Sassanian King, defeated the Parthian Artabanus V in battle. A relief carved at Naqsh-i Rustam depicts Ardashir receiving kingship from Ahura Mazda; Ardashir and steed stand upon Artabanus and Ahura Mazda upon the serpent-haired Ahriman. The sigil of the Sun and the Moon, adapted from ancient Parthian standard. The army of the Parthians has some key origins for some of the later associations of the serpent or dragon of Ahriman. The backbone of the Parthian military was the armored cavalry and mounted light archers. The Parthians were one of the strongest cavalry forces in the ancient world, having their roots from the nomadic Dahae. The cataphract was an armored cavalry who was a type of shock cavalry, both the Parthian noble and Nisaean horse (bred strong in Media, the tribal homeland of the Medes or Magi) were protected with mailed armor. The warrior carried a lance, bow and arrows. The Cataphracts were numbered 1,000 to a unit, called a ‘Dragon’; the banners often depicted serpent-dragons as a sign of conquering and war. The rest of the mounted horse archers were a light cavalry called the Sagitarii who used composite bows. They wore the traditional belted tunic, trousers and boots with either headband or bashlik, a type of hat used by Scythian and Achamenid tribes in Persia. The Sagitarii avoided direct contact with the enemy, instead the rode around the infantry and showered them with arrows. Before troops could catch them, these Sagitarii rode quickly off and then returned to pepper the enemy with arrows again. The Cataphracti would then crash into the infantry and cause great devastation, before retreating while the Sagitarii against ride in and shoot a cloud of arrows into the massed enemy troops. The Dragon-Serpent standard of the Parthians who went to battle with 1000 armored cataphracts known as a ‘Dragon’ unit. Not having a tribal abundance of infantry, the Parthians utilized mercenaries such as the Greek settlers still living in the old Seleucid cities along with other soldiers when spear and swordsmen were needed. The Parthians were open to the assimilation of gods and cults of Hellenic, Persian, Mesopotamian and Sogdian cultures. This type of polytheism is present with the example of Vaxsu (Vaxsuvar) was the name of an Iranian Water God whose cult was centered on the Oxus River4. HERAKLES-NERGAL AS PARTHIAN WAR-DEATH & LIFE SUSTAINING GOD 4 The Impact of Seleucid Decline on the Eastern Iranian Plateau, Lerner pg. 24 The Parthians and Sassanian used dragon designs on their weapons. In the Hellenic and Parthian period “Round Hall” in Nisa depict dragons in the architectural design. In the Parthian city of Hatra in northern Mesopotamia depicts Herakles-Nergal, god of realm of death and the underworld. The Hellenic and Mesopotamian assimilated god was both a sustaining (life) and destroying (death) power whose attribute is the serpent. Herakles-Nergal is shown clad in Parthian clothing wielding a double-bladed battle axe in his right hand; the right blade is replaced with a serpent (both serpents and dragons were interchangeable) and gripping the hilt of a Persian dagger in the other hand. Herakles-Nergal is girded with a serpent-like rope to which three dogs (or wolves) are controlled. The tail of one is a serpent, which could be an allusion to Cerberus. Two serpents spring from the shoulders of Herakles-Nergal (like Azhi Dahak) while others rest at his feet; to the right he is flanked by a large cultstandard (called a semeion) and near his foot another serpent and scorpion rest. Herakles-Nergal is depicted with a goddess sitting upon a throne flanked by two lions, Atargatis (known in Zoroastrianism as Anahita). The two serpents from the shoulders no doubt have origins from the Mesopotamian underworld (death/fertility/vegetation) god, Ningishzida. This type of syncretism in the Parthian period is one example of how magick is understood. Traits, associations and relation to the Deific Masks’ role in nature and with humanity may take different forms; yet the essence remains identifiable. SASSANIAN EMPIRE 226 – 651 A.D. Second Persian Empire The second Persian Empire began with Ardashir I, son of Papak, a descendant of the priests of Anahita in Istakhr in Fars. This local ruler, revolted against the fragmenting empire of the Parthians an Ardashir I was crowned king after the defeat of Artabanus IV. Ardashir I was crowned ‘Shahanshah’ (King of Kings) and their line continued until 651 A.D. when Yazdegerd III was defeated after a 14 year struggle to keep Arabian invaders out of Persia. Papak, the high priest of Anahita in Persis, overthrew Gocihr, the last vassal king of the Bazrangids (who were vassal kings to the Parthians). In 220, Ardashir, then the governer of Darabgird, found a power struggle against his brother Shapur in which Ardashir was victorious when his brother was killed by a falling roof. Ardashir I went on to conquer and subdue the regions of Kerman, Esfahan, Susiana, and Mesene. This usurper came to the attention of Artabanus IV who sent Parthian generals against him and lost. Artabanus IV, already fighting revolts and family infighting, gathered a large army and was defeated at Hormizdeghan. Ardashir I was crowned after in Ctesiphon near Seleucia in Mesopotamia. Prior to the ascension of the Sassanians, the Parthians were tolerant of local pantheons and their rulers, as long as proper tribute to the crown was paid. The Sassanians reinstated the Zoroastrian religion as the “state religion” of the Aryans and the “Good Religion” rose to new heights in the East. The son of Ardashir I, Shapur I, collected the fragments of the Zoroastrian religion which were dispersed throughout India, the Byzantine empire and all over the ancient near east and commanded that they be complied and a copy sent to each province. Persian king, Khusraw (Chosroes I) struck out with a religious fervor when he fought against heretics in Iran to elevate the Zoroastrian religion. Three sects essential arose from these actions which included the Mazdean dualists, Monotheists and Zurvanites. What is known about the Sassanians is that the religion of Zoroaster had different strains and variations in theology, depending on which Shah ruler (along with Priests), depended upon the strictness and ideas which allowed to flourish. As a rule, the cults of the daevas were fought and spread out into the Eastern Roman Empire. MANDAEAN & THE WORLD OF DARKNESS The Mandaeans were a religious sect which developed from concepts and terminologies related to the Dead Sea Scrolls, Zoroastrianism, and early Christianity along with folk magic traditions in Mesopotamia, Syria and Elymais. The Mandaeans, having Semitic origins, named in contrast Moses as being a false prophet and that Adonai was an evil god. Like Gnosticism, there are subtle divisions and a type of dualism with light and darkness. A ruler of darkness, Ptahil has origins in the Egyptian ‘Ptah’ with the Hebraic ‘El’. The Queen of Demons, known as Az and Jeh in Zoroastrian and Manichean texts is known as Ruha. Ruha was the daughter of Hagh and his wife Magh in the world of Darkness. Akrun, the ruler of Darkness (associated with Ahriman and Akoman); Gaf and Gafan (male and female demons) and with Sargi and Sargani are also rulers of Darkness. Ashdum, another demon king, had Ruha as his consort. Hiwel-Ziwa, a king in the light of the heavens, descended into the lower realms and created a world called ‘Olma ad eHshukha’ (World of Darkness) which was the physical world. Hiwel-Ziwa descended further until he reached Akrun Tura ad Besera (Krun, Mountain of Flesh) in the depths of creation. The physical world is said to rest on the King of Darkness, his shape being a gigantic louse; a parasite which feeds on dead skin. The throat of Akrun is vast and he has a great ability to draw in all things into his mouth. Hiwel-Ziwa was assisted by the powers of light and threatening Akrun, demanded that Ruha be released to him. Ruha bore a son, Ptahil, who takes souls to be weighed is a child of both Light and Darkness. Ruha is a mistress of the magical arts and uses a mirror to cast visions. The Mandaean kingdom of Darkness is described as such: Ruha dwelled in the first world of Darkness. The second is the realm of Zartai-Zartanai and his wife Amamit (Egyptian Ammit the devouring demon). The third was the realm of Hag and Mag. The fourth was the world of Gaf and Gafan; these two resemble dragons and proceed from the black, hissing and seething waters. These were bound with liliths and salamanders. The fifth was the world of Anatan and Qin. Qin is the “Mother of Darkness”. The sixth, Shdum, ‘King of the Dark World’ who then sends one to Giu who then leads to Karkum (Krun). Krun, known as Akrun gives HiwelZiwa a talisman to then ascend out of the underworld. Ruha becomes pregnant with ‘Ur who grows into a giant. The demonic spirits of the Mandaeans are said to be excellent linguists and the King of Darkness knows all the languages of the world. Magic and sorcery is widely practiced among the Mandaeans as they draw from a wealth of folk traditions dating back to the ancient Sumerians. A talisman known as the Skandola features representations of the powers of darkness. On the Skandola are the lion, scorpion, bee and serpent. The serpent represents ‘Ur, the great earth dragon who is associated with water, fertility and life. The iron knife or athame is named also the Skandola; this translates “Dwelling of Evil’ (skandola = skan d ula). The serpent ‘Ur is associated with the Yezidi black serpent on the door of the temple of Shaikh ‘Adi. The Mithraic cult had influence in the Skandola talisman with the symbols of evil: Snake, Lion and Scorpion all have a common association. A reproduction of a Skandola talisman. The Skandola was the talisman brought back by Hibil Ziwa from Akrun in the depths of the worlds of Darkness, bringing Ruha to the upper world. The skandola talisman is described as having four signs; the hornet or wasp above, the lion centered, the scorpion beneath with the serpent encircling. The scorpion, lion and hornet take worldly souls, throwing them into the mouth of ‘ Ur. Within the belly of ‘Ur there is fire one hour and ice the next. MANICHAEAN KINGDOM OF DARKNESS The religion of Manichaeanism was a very elaborate Gnostic sect which blended the teachings of Zoroastrianism, early Christianity and the various cultic traditions in the Middle East. Mani was an Arsacid Persian who was born in 216 in Mesopotamia. Influenced by Judaic mysticism and the aforementioned elements, Mani sought to establish a religion focused on light-dominating dualism with associations of Jesus, Buddhism and other practices. The cult spread quickly throughout the Syrian and Eastern Roman Empire, surviving into early Christian dominated Roman culture. The Sassanian king Bahram I put Mani to death in 274 A.D. during a Zoroastrian religious prosecution. I provide here an elementary description of the World of Darkness: Manichaean World of Darkness Melech Kheshokha - King of Darkness The Syriac melech kheshokha, known in Middle Persian as Ahriman. Ashaklun (Saklas) The Syriac Ashaklun is associated with the Middle Persian Az (male demon) and Azi Dahaka. Ashaklun is the son of Ahriman and in the Coptic Gnostic Tradition in the same as Yaltabaoth and Samael. Nebroel (Nebrod) The Syriac Nebroel is the mate of Ashaklun and mother of Adam and Eve; these two known as Gehmurd and Murdiyanag in Middle Persian. Yakhte – Giants & Fallen Angels The Fallen Angels, Giants and Abortions who fell into the World of Darkness; Syriac Yakhte are associated with the Greek Arkhonata, Gnostic Archons. In Mani’s myths, the Giants were originally Archons who had been imprisoned in the skies under the supervision of the “King of Glory”, one of the five sons of the “Living Spirit”. These Archons rebelled and two hundred escaped and were called Giants. Four Angels bound them to the eternal chains in the prison of the Dark. The sons of the Giants were killed on earth. This is a different tale from the Giants of the Old Testament, who came down from heaven, The demons Saklas (Gnostic Yaltabaoth and Samael) and Nebrod were the parents of Adam and Eve. Saklas was the son of the King of Darkness. Saklas took the offspring of the abortions and devoured the male ones; the females were given to Nebrod. These demons copulated and produced Adam and Eve. The Syriac name of the son of the Prince of Darkness is ‘sqlwn. Saklas has variation in a different tradition of the Coptic Gnostic texts of The Apocryphon of John. Five Evil Kingdoms are counterparts to the five elements of light. These are associated in Liber HVHI to the five points of the inverted pentagram. The Devil or Ahriman of Manichaeanism was thought to have originated in Matter or hyle. In Manichaeism, the Mother of All Demons is Az. She is identical in essence to the Mesopotamian Lilitu and Lamashtu, Hebrew Lilith and similar representations in the Middle East. The subtle differences between Az, Jeh and the Pairikas are explored in their proper references herein. Magic and sorcery was instructed against as a majority rule in the Manichaean sects; Other Manichaean texts offer a magical spell of invisibility. Of course, in true monotheist fashion the Coptic Kephalaia warns that: “Keep away from the magic arts and enchantments of darkness! For any person who will be taught them, and who does and accomplishes them; at the last, in the place where will be bound the King of the realms of Darkness with his powers, there they will bind that one also, the soul of whoever has lived freely among them and walked in the magic arts”5 5 A Manichaean polemic against magic from the Coptic Kephalaia, The Light and Darkness, Mirecki & Beduhn, pg. 173. The Yatus can recognize this for what it is: Darkness is physical and spiritual power in the material world; the Adversary brings freedom and independence against the slave-mentality with the cost of self-accountability of actions. The weak and fearful need their reassurance of a benevolent deity helping them through life, the strong and wise need reliance on the self and the accountability of thoughts, deeds and actions. The King of Darkness, Ahriman, is a great black magician in the Manichaean texts who is the demonic origin of magic. The Book of Enoch and the Fallen Angels hold clue to influence in Manichaeanism here as well. “The watchers of heaven, who came down to the earth…they did all the deeds of treachery. They have revealed crafts in the world and have unveiled to people the mysteries of heaven.”6 For modern Luciferians practicing from the many pantheons and traditions of the Adversary, the obvious bridge between Ahriman and the unrelated pantheon of the Watchers in the Enoch texts reveals a possibility. The King of Darkness is thus the source of the magical arts and the exemplar of all magicians is an inspiring ideal in Luciferianism. The Yatus models his initiation and approach to life as Ahriman; a conquering spirit who uses the darkness to shape and influence where needed. YEZIDI & SHAITAN The Yezidi tribe has origins to original followers of ‘Umayid Caliph Yezid I, who was a contemporary and follower of Muhammad. Yezid I is credited with the murder of Husain, son of ‘Ali and Fatima and the grandson of Muhammad on the 10th of October, 680 A.D. while this is not observed fact. The Yezidi are Kurdish speaking tribes which blends Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, Mesopotamian earned them the title of “Devil Worshippers”. The name of Yezidi may derive from the old Zoroastrian word of Angels, Yazads (Yazatas). 6 Kephalaia 38 Nestorian Christian, Sabaean, pre-Islamic religions, Christianity, Sufism and Islam which As a highly syncretic religion, the Yezidi have methods which utilize various traditions of both spiritual and magical practice. , the Islamic ‘Shaitan’ is manifest in the form of the Peacock Angel known as Melek Ta’us, revealed to the Yezidi by Adi ibn Musafir around 1100 A.D. who was a shaykh from Baalbek in Lebanon. Melek Ta’us, the Lord Peacock is one aspect of the Muslim Shaitan. The two forms of Melek Ta’us as the intermediary spirit between man and Allah. Melek Ta’us, while still a representation of the Adversary, plays a more beneficial role to the Yezidi. Melek Ta’us was created Lord of the Earth. His roles are many: the Tempter, Prince of Devils, the Strong One, the Wicked One, Enemy, the Hostile One and Prince of Darkness. The Yezidi veneration of Melek Ta’us has his statue depicting him in the form of a peacock; the Black Snake is also a part of the cult as one is carved onto the door of the tomb of Sheikh Adi. The two cult statues of Melek Ta’us are known as sanjaq. The angelology of the Yezidi is Muhammadan in structure; Archangels such as Jabrail, Mikha’il the rain bringer; Azra’il the Angel of Death; Didra’il; Rafa’il; Shemka’il; Azazil, the Devil as Azrafil. PART TWO AVESTAN COSMOLOGY THE VOID & DARKNESS OF AHRIMAN The Avestan texts present a myth of two primeval Spirits and their interaction which creates the world. The Bundahishn and Greater Bundahishn reveal that both Ohrmazd (Ahura Mazda) and Ahriman (Angra Mainyu) are co-eternal and are both independent substances from each other. The Zoroastrians claim Ohrmazd is infinite and not bound by time and space, yet Ahriman is bound in addition to a direction downwards. The cosmic struggle which Ahriman brings to Ohrmazd allows disorderly motion to inspire evolution and the strengthening of the consciousness. From the Upper Side of the Void does Ahriman emerge to bring the darkness of chaos to the light of Ohrmazd. The Adversary instills the power of the will in which perhaps Ohrmazd is even tainted or illuminated by the substance of Ahriman, being the Black Flame of Az. In the beginning Ohrmazd is said to have created the basis of the universe in which stasis would rein supreme. Ahriman stirred from the void and recognized the light of which he also possessed. Named ‘The Aggressor’, Ahriman is the counter-motion which upsets the ease of which Ohrmazd establishes, causing darkness to be the substance in which the Divine Black Flame burns and feeds from. The nature of Ohrmazd is ‘omniscient and good’ while Ahriman possesses that ‘whose will is to smite’. Ahriman wishes to devour this light of Ohrmazd, which attempts to gather all as weak sheep unto him while the Adversary desires to inspire strife and power. Ahriman goes back into the darkness and forges his own weapons in the shape of Daevas or Demons. Ohrmazd seeks to have peace but Ahriman rejects it utterly. The Adversary and Ohrmazd will wage war for 9,000 years in which Ahriman will taint and no doubt overtake the form of Ohrmazd. Ahriman attacks Ohrmazd in which chants the Ahunvar which causes Ahriman to swoon and fall back into the Darkness which he sleeps for Three Thousand Years until his greatest weapon, Az awakens him. During the period of creation by Ohrmazd, the six Amahraspands are created while in other texts it is sometimes seven. Ahriman fashioned from the material darkness the six (sometimes seven also) Arch-Daevas Akoman, Indar, Savar, Naonihaithya, Taprev and Zairich. EASTERN IRANIAN COSMOLOGY The Zoroastrian cult of the Immortal Flame was a religion based on two aspects, gaeitya and mainyava. The meaning of gaeitya is “physical” and mainyava is “spiritual” and are defined by the realm of the tangible and the unseen or intangible. This central foundation is the cosmological interplay between that of the spirit and the material world we call ‘reality’. The etymology of mainyava is from Mainyu, translated “spirit” but associated with the root ‘man’ meaning, “To think, perceive with the mind7”. In modern Luciferianism, consciousness is often symbolized as the “Black Flame” which is the gift of knowing both darkness and light. This will be explored further later in this work. The Old Indic word manyu translates “force, impulse or vehemence”. The Gathic association of mainyava is a dual force of both creative and destructive force. Understanding that the Zoroastrianism as recorded in the Middle Ages depicts a clear duality between darkness and light; modern Luciferianism expresses that there is no duality in itself. All energies and spiritual ‘force’ may be utilized in either creative or destructive ways; darkness is our primordial beginning and our motivating instinct which inspires our conscious or “Light” bringing mind. In short, one may not exist without the other. Luciferians use nature itself as our ideological and developing spiritual path as our evidence. All aspects of nature have both cruel and nurturing aspects and no predatory mammal or reptile acts in a desire to cause harm without purpose (except for humans in some cases); predators are driven by the instinct of survival. With this in mind, seek to understand the trans-cultural symbolism of the Adversary, the motivator of life. In Zoroastrian theology, the concept of the world is created by Ahura Mazda in his chosen “Ideal” manifestation. The word for this in Pahlavi is “menog” and then the actual form which is “getig”. Thus, for the cunning Yatukih, we see the self-defined ideological concept that the “way” in which we “think” and chosen path in turn creates a material form as well; a much smaller path compared to the Zoroastrian concept of Ahura Mazda’s creation as well. 7 The Old Eastern Iranian World View According to the Avesta, Chapter 13; The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 2, The Median and Achaemenian Periods edited by Ilya Gershevitch The demons of Angra Mainyu exist in the mainyava form; however the Zoroastrians consider that the divine (i.e. Ahura Mazda) spiritual “sphere” contains two states; one “getig” and also the “menog” form. Luciferians would rather accept the balance similar to the Hellenic cults which to some extent synchronized with the Zoroastrian cults during the Seleucid and Parthian periods. Just as there is ‘getig” and “menog” for Ahura Mazda, the order establishing Deific Mask, closely similar to Zeus, Angra Mainyu and the Daevas exist also in the two states; acting as motivators of progression in the mind and ultimately nature as well. AHURA MAZDA Ohrmazd Lord of Wisdom Ohrmazd, whose name means “Lord Wisdom”, from ‘ahura’, ‘Sovereign’ who is ‘knowledge’, ‘mazdah’; thus “Lord Wisdom” is the spiritual deity who maintains cosmic order and earthly structure according to the “good” (or beneficial to those worshipping Ohrmazd) of the people. Ohrmazd was considered to be of light and the sovereign of the pastoralists, his rival, Ahriman, was from darkness and guided the warlike Aryan tribes who raided Persian pastoralists throughout history. Ohrmazd is considered an all-wise deity, a watchful guardian and protector, father and maintainer of the lands. The throne of Ohrmazd is in the heavens, much like the more ancient gods of Mesopotamia and Greece. Ohrmazd revealed his ‘Holy Spirit’ (Sacred Spirit), ‘Spenta Mainyu’ in which Ahriman manifested in opposition. The Persian national religion from before the time of the Achamenid Persians was developed as a cult of the united tribes as a “Sky God” which has similar imagery to the Assyrian ‘Assur’, the maintainer and benefactor of the Mesopotamian lands who also was a bloodthirsty and violent sky god. Ohrmazd was less violent and his focus was placed on his ability to maintain order in the lands. The Gathas present Ahura Mazda not only the god of prophetic revelation, also ‘rtavan’ (Avestan ‘ashavan’), meaning ‘possessed of truth’ and ‘maintaining order’. The Vedic Varuna is most like the Gathic Ahura Mazda; the manifestation of the wisdom of Ahura Mazda is conducted via Vohu Manah, Zoroaster’s prophetic reforms evolved Ahura Mazda as an ordering bringing god who would battle against the old cult of daevas. Ahura Mazda from rock carving in Persia In Zurvanite myths, the god Zurvan had two sons in the same womb; the first was Ohrmazd, described as ‘light’ and ‘beautiful’ while Ahriman was ‘dark’ and ‘stinking’. Zurvan announced the first born would rule the earth; being cunning and intelligent, Ahriman clawed out of the womb in violent enthusiasm, to which Zurvan rejected him and recognizing Ohrmazd in his place. AHURA MAZDA & HELLENIZATION Ahura Mazda’s cult spread with the Achaemenid Empire and syncretism within the many temple-cults of Syria, Cilicia and Persia (among others) is evident from coin issues. In Cilicia, located in the South Costal region of Asia Minor, was home to a mix of Cilician, Greek and other cultures. Like other areas of the Achaemenid Empire, the Kings appointed local rulers or Satrap’s (often members of the Achaemenid Persian royal family) to govern the areas. The territory of Cilicia (Asia Minor, modern Turkey), under the Achaemenid Persian Satrap Tiribazos (386 B.C.E.) minted highly detailed coins which traditionally depict the primary temple-cult of the satrapy. Ahura Mazda is depicted on one side of the coin, appearing as a succession of the old Assyrian deity Assur. Ahura Mazda as the sky god is shown with the bottom half below the waist as an eagle, his muscular torso emerging from the winged solar sphere as ruler of the heavens and cosmological order. Ahura Mazda is depicted wearing a crown called a kalathos, being a vase utilized as a type of top-hat which was used to hold fruit or wool. This symbolic crown represents fertility in the land. Ahura Mazda holds a lotus blossom and wreath. The opposite side of the coin has depictions from Baal’taars (Baal of Tarsus), Hercules (Greek Hero-god) and other Hellenic associations. MITHRA Mi-it-ra, Mitra, Mithras Yazata of Ohrmazd, God of Oath, Warlord and Solar Illumination Mi-it-ra was an ancient god of the oath, friendship whose cult was closely linked with Varuna among the Indo-Aryans; the treaty between the Hittites and Mitanni in Bronze Age Syria name Mitra along with Varuna, Indra and Nasatya. In the Khorda Avesta, Mihr Yasht (Hymn to Mithra): “Unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, who has a thousand ears, ten thousand eyes, a Yazata invoked by his own name, and unto Rama Hvastra…'Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, gives swiftness to the horses of those who lie not unto Mithra. 'Fire, the son of Ahura Mazda, gives the straightest way to those who lie not unto Mithra. 'The good, strong, beneficent Fravashis of the faithful give a virtuous offspring to those who lie not unto Mithra. 'For his brightness and glory, I will offer unto him a sacrifice worth being heard, namely, unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures. 'We offer up libations unto Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, who gives a happy dwelling and a good dwelling to the Aryan nations.”Mihr Yasht (Hymn to Mithra, Khorda Avesta) Mithra originally was a Vedic god, once the Iranian Ahura Mazda cultists adopted Mithra the deity manifested as a Yazata in the cosmological order of Ohrmazd. During the Zoroastrian reform, he shared the throne of Ahura and the dual-compound Ahura-Mithra. His strength is noted in the Mihr Yasht and invoked frequently in the Yasna as the personification of the sanctity of oaths and contracts; additionally Mithra is a god of war whose savagery and cruelty competes against Aeshma. Above: Mitra in Old Persian Cuneiform Mithra triumphantly travels the sky from east to west, proceeding the Sun as a chariot-driving conqueror. The Mithra Yasht reveals Mithra was worshipped by the armed charioteers as a god of war. Mithra is the lord of hosts and ‘levier of armies’; indulging in gruesome slaughter directed at those who break contracts and oaths. Just as Mithra goes before the sun, he is the Lord of Fire. During the Achaemenid period, Mithra became interchangeable to some extent with the Babylonian Shamash, the sun god whose authority in the pantheon was as judge. In the texts of the Historian Quintus Curtius Rufus, Darius is said to invoke the Sun, Mithra and the sacred, eternal Fire. During the Hellenic period, Mithra is the equivalent to Apollo who is often the representative of the sun. In the ‘Sminthian Oration’, Menander invokes Apollo, “the Persians call you Mithras, the Egyptians Horus”8. Like Apollo and the Canaanite-Syrian equivalent, Resheph, Mithra is also a god who is able to send out disease and death to his enemies. Mithra of the Wide Pastures wields a mace which he not only defeats his enemies but to maintain order, often is depicted in his anger beating down his own worshippers; this no doubt recalls an earlier daevic source associated with Indra and Rudra-Saurva. Mithra is not only associated with the oath, ruling king and warrior; the god is also light. The light of Mithra, like the western conception of “Lucifer” as the morning star, is the herald before the sun. Mithra surveys the habitations of the Persians, riding across the sky in a one-wheeled golden chariot and the god illuminates his own body. Mithra’s chariot is guided by the four strong white horses. Mithra is associated to some small extent with the night sky as well; he traverses the earth after the sun’s glow has faded and sweeps across the boundaries between heaven and earth, his mace held in his hand. The more terrible, warlord traits associated with Mithra over the Zoroastrian reformation were transferred to the daevas, Indra and Saurva; while some of his violent ecstasy is shared with Sraosha and Rashnu, felling the enemies of order, Mithra holds strong in his compelled disciplines over the physical world under Ahura Mazda. 8 Oratio 2.446 As Mithra is the god who commands the physical world as in order and hierarchy, Ahura Mazda and the Amesha Spenta all fashioned their dwellings in the heavens. This astral abode, close to the sun is called Haraiti; from this Mithra surveys the material world. In early cults, Mithra dwelled on the earth yet in the Mazdean religion, along with the Amesha Spentas, fashioning a great above mount Hara. As Mithra was integrated into the reformed Mazdean religion, Mithra is now offered to in the cult with libations and liturgy; when Mithra is pleased he travels the empyrean from east to west in his chariot. Mithra’s sister, Ashi, guides his chariot and now has a personification of himself as a wargod, the name of Verethraghna, who acts as a ‘messenger’ or ‘angel’; simply like other later religions a type of ‘aspect’ relating to the god. During the Zoroastrian period, the daeva Indra was perceived as the demonic counterpart in part of Mithra. We can easily understand this by the assimilation of epithets and descriptions. Mithra’s weapon was the vazra, a club or mace; this weapon was also venerated as a type of deity in its’ own right. Indra’s weapon, the Vajra, known as the Thunderbolt was also revered. Mithra and Indra are ‘rathaeshtar’, ‘charioteers’; ‘ughrabazu’, ‘strong-armed’; ‘aojah’, ‘mighty’ and have ‘good horses’. The cult of Haoma indeed venerates Mithra and the offerings go forth to Haraiti, the great empyrean palace of the god. It was Ahura Mazda who designated Haoma to use the barsom, chant liturgy and pour libations to Mithra. The personification of Mithra as a sun-god of war and violent ecstasy was in Verethraghna, whose form was a tusked wild boar. The Mithra Yasht in the Avesta describes Mithra as being worshipped by charioteers as a god of war. His progress from east to west precedes the sun, much like the Morning and Evening Star (Venus). Mithra is the ‘levier of armies’ and is a terrible avenger against those who break contracts. Mithra makes the waters flow again (like Indra defeating Vrtra in the Rig Veda). The War-Chariot of Mithra describes him as the ‘wrathful lord’ and is drawn by white horses. Verethraghna precedes him in the form of a wild boar. Mithra joined with Sraosha and Rashnu scour the earth at night, battling Aeshma and the Daevas. The god is the protector of the material world and is worshipped by Haoma; his golden chariot is his vehicle in which he illuminates the world. Mithra may be invoked as a model of balance between the primal strength and passion of inner darkness and the refined consciousness and will of the Yatus. The wide variations of the character of this Deific Mask are highly useful to the sorcerer who wishes to explore initiatory aspects of the self as an evolving, living god. The Yatus may invoke during the night the enemy of Mithra, Mitra-druj and his match, Aeshma as one who wields power to determine the manifest world as a god; during the light Mithra is the mediator between material order in life and controlling the passions inspiring us. The Roman Mithras slaying the Bull During the Roman period, the cult of Mithras spread throughout the empire (even into Romancontrolled England) and the cult of daevas, transformed by the Magian heretics who settled in Asia Minor, performed the “Mystery of the Sorcerers”, invoking Ahriman and the Daevas; by the hours of day invoking Ohrmazd and Mithras. It was, between Ahriman and Ohrmazd, Mithras, acting as mediator and the balance-maker in the Mithraic mysteries. In the Roman mysteries of the Cult of Mithras, the warriorgod is a balanced mediator between the deities of the empyrean and the ‘daimons’ of the underworld. This cult reveals knowledge in grades and initiation is granted via experience. The immolation of the bull in the rites of Mithra depicts the god, in the form of a strong man, wearing a Phrygian cap, stabbing the bull with a scorpion, serpent and dog drinking the blood of the slain. This offering is one of the fertility of the earth and the cycle of destruction and creation. In the Pahlavi books, Mithra does not slay the bull; rather it is Ahriman who slays the bull. This symbolic rite of Ahriman is cosmic, later repeated by Yima the first man. Statues of Mithra shows a raven observing the act of sacrifice, the scorpion, a creature of Ahriman, stings the bull while the serpent and dog battle over the blood. In other traditions, Yima (the Rig Veda’s Yama) is a solar deity who chooses to be mortal to conquer death. The path of Yama guides one into death and then transformation into spiritual immortality. In the Rig Veda, King Yama, God of the Dead, dwells in the abode of the devas (in Avestan ‘daevas’) where he is surrounded with song. Yima, as the Zoroastrian first man, offers to Ahura Mazda but in secret to the daevas; thus Yima is the prototype for the Yatukan cultus of daevayasna. Mithraism of the Roman Empire was a continuation and development of Iranian paganism, so hated by Zoroastrians, brought to the West by the migrating practitioners of the daeva-cult. The significance of the slaughter of the bull recalls the rites of the daevas in the Rig Veda as warriortribes of maryannu. The Ahrimanian significance is the act of self-will commanding the course and self-determined path in life, free from servitude and the path to becoming a god. VERETHRAGHNA Vahagn, Artagnes-Herakles-Ares, Bahram, Behram Genius of Victory & War-God Verethraghna, the god of victory, was for a time one of the most venerated deities of Western Iran, from the Seleucid period onward into the Sassanian time. The cult of Verethraghna spread into Armenia and has many illustrious associations. The etymology of Verethraghna is related to the known chief epithet of the daeva Indra, ‘vrtrahan’, ‘slayer of resistance’; this was developed from the myth of Indra slaying the serpent-dragon of chaos, Vrtra. Verethraghna is attributed to the heroic and violent victory (via war and conflict) and is honored to the highest grade of templefires. This cult was made strong through the Hellenistic veneration of Herakles and the two were assimilated. In the Rig Veda, the epithet of Indra is the origin for the Zoroastrian Verethraghna: ‘vrtahan’, ‘he who overcomes the defense’. The historian Moses of Chorene describes the accomplishments of Vahagn even surpassing those of Herakles. The Hellenic Antiochus I of Commagene assimilated Vahagn with Herakles and Ares, the god of war. The incarnations of Verethraghna are described as being many in the ‘Waharan Yasht’ of the Avesta. Verethraghna appears to Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in several forms. If invoking Verethraghna to overcome an enemy or obstacle, the Yatus may visualize the forms of the Deific Masks in his following incarnations. Forms of Verethraghna A Strong Wind – In the shape of a strong wind, made by Ahura Mazda and bringing the glory of victory. Verethraghna proclaims: “I am the strongest in strength; I am the most victorious in victory; I am the most glorious in glory; I am the most favouring in favour; I am the best giver of welfare: I am the best-healing in health-giving.” Golden-horned Bull– Appearing as a strong bull, “with yellow ears and golden horns; upon whose horns floated the well-shapen Strength, and Victory, beautiful of form, made by Ahura: thus did he come, bearing the good Glory, made by Mazda, the Glory made by Mazda, that is both health and strength.”9 A White Horse – Verethraghna appeared “running in the shape of a white, beautiful horse, with yellow ears and a golden caparison; upon whose forehead floated the well-shapen Strength, and Victory, beautiful of form, made by Ahura: thus did he come, bearing the good Glory, made by Mazda, that is both health and strength.” A Rutting Camel– Sharp-toothed, long-haired and stamping forth. A Wild Tusked Boar – “In front of Mithra of wide pastures speeds Verethraghna, Ahura-created – in the form of a boar, aggressive, sharp in tooth, a male – a boar, sharp in tusk, unapproachable, a killer at one blow – furious, slobbering at the snout, and mighty: iron it’s fore-feet, iron its hind-feet, iron its tendons, iron its tail, and iron its jaws. Filled with rage and a hero’s valor he catches up with his enemies and violently smites them down, nor does he deem that he has dealt them a blow or inflicted a wound until he has smashed the vertebrae, the pillars of life – the vertebrae, the springs of vitality. At one fell blow he hacks to pieces everything: bones and hair, brains and blood of men who break their contracts he mashes up together on the ground.”10 A Strong Youth– Verethraghna then appeared as a handsome youth, shining eyes and strong continence. 9 Waharan Yasht, Avesta. 10 The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism, Zaehner, pg. 101 Raven (and Falcon) - Verethraghna, appeared flying in the form of a raven. The raven is a form of Apollo and the feathers are associated with magical power. The raven is considered to strike terror into an army. As the raven, Verethraghna, “made by Ahura, came to him the seventh time, running in the shape of a raven that ...below and above, and that is the swiftest of all birds, the lightest of the flying creatures. He alone of living things, — he or none, overtakes the flight of an arrow, however well it has been shot. He flies up joyfully at the first break of dawn, wishing the night to be no more, wishing the dawn that has not yet come, to come. He grazes the hidden ways of the mountains, he grazes the tops of the mountains, he grazes the depths of the vales, he grazes the summits of the trees, listening to the voices of the birds.” Horned Ram- Verethraghna “came to him the eighth time, running in the shape of a wild, beautiful ram, with horns bent round.” Sharp-horned BuckVerethraghna appeared, “running in the shape of a beautiful, fighting buck, with sharp horns.” Armed WarriorAppearing for the tenth time, Verethraghna appeared “running in the shape of a man, bright and beautiful, made by Mazda: he held a sword with a golden blade, inlaid with all sorts of ornaments.” AMESHA SPENTAS Amahraspandan "Beneficent Immortals" The seven Amesha Spentas are associated with the seven elements of creation in Zoroastrian theology. The Amesha Spentas are considered the first creations of Ahura Mazda and personify and guard the seven elements of creation. The two Haurvatat and Ameretat, like Taprev and Zairich, act as a couple, complimenting the opposite. The Yatus may choose to invoke and honor the Amesha Spentas at discretion. You may not be interested in working with those powers, maintaining a deep dedication to the darkness and path of daevas. This is entirely up to the predilection of the individual. VOHU MANO Vohuman, Vohu Manah Genius of the Good Mind Vohu Mano presides over cattle in the Mazdean religion and is the enemy of Akoman. Vohu Mano is associated with the thought pertaining to Ahura Mazda’s perceived ‘order’ from a Zoroastrian perspective. Vohu Mano is Ohrmazd (Ahura Mazda’s) first creation and personification of his order sustaining mind which manifests through man. It is Vohu Mano who guides Zarathustra’s soul in trance to the throne of heaven. The auxiliary Archangels next to Vohuman according to the Bundahishn are Mah (the Moon), Goshurun (Genius of Cattle) and Ram (Giver of Good Pastures). The rooster is the designated animal of Vohuman and white jasmine is the flower. ATAR Atash (Pahlavi: Adar) Atar translates ‘fire’. This Yazad presides over fire. Atar is 'the Son of Ahura Mazda' in the Avesta. Atar is the god of fire and considered the son of Ahura Mazda. The two fire deities, Atar and Asha Vahishta are represented as both the spiritual and physical manifestation of the element. In the Yatukan rites, Sama Atar (Black Fire) is the consciousness of divine darkness bestowed to the Yatus by Ahrimanian Rites. ASHA VAHISHTA (Pahlavi ‘Ardwahisht’) Physical Manifestation of Fire The name of Asha Vahishta means ‘Highest Asha’, the Amahraspand presiding over Asha and fire. The Amahraspand personifies what the Mazdean religion deemed ‘right’ and the sacred fire. KHSHATHRA VAIRYA (Pahlavi ‘Shahrewar’) The name translates, 'Desirable Dominion', Khshathra Vairya is the Amahraspand presiding over metals of the earth. This Amesha Spenta may have slight chthonic and metallurgical associations which the Yatus may consider. SPENTA ARMAITI (Pahlavi ‘Spandarmad’) Spenta Armaiti ('Holy Devotion’) is the earthly manifestation of the Ohrmazdean “Lord of the Earth”. The Amahraspand has dominion over the earth during the hours of the sun by Ohrmazd and Mitra. If during the hours of the sun, offerings are made to invoke sustaining order in ones’ personal life, Spenta Armaiti represents the devotion to the Deific Mask of Ohrmazd. HAURVATAT (Pahlavi ‘Hordad’) Haurvatat translates 'Perfection and Health'. This Yazata presides over water. Water rinses, cleans and is the element in which we arose via evolution. AMERETAT (Pahlavi ‘Amurdad’) Ameretat, meaning 'Immortality', is the Amahraspand presiding over the Earth. Ameretat represents the survival of divine consciousness and the aspiration of the Yatus as becoming a living god. YAZATAS Yazads Angels of Ahura Mazda and Amesha Spentas Deities of Indo-Aryan Origins assimilated into the Mazdean Pantheon The Yazatas or Yazads were originally Vedic gods and also ancient Iranian deities which composed the original polytheistic templecults in the early stages of the Mazdean cult. In Zoroastrianism, they are similar to ‘messengers’ (‘angels’) of Ohrmazd. ANAHITA Aredvi Sura Anahita, Anahit, Anaitis Yazad & Goddess of the Waters and Beasts Healing, Fertility & Wisdom Aredvi Sura translates 'strong, immaculate Anahita' the Iranian goddess who became a Yazad personifying water and in some parts of ancient Iran, Lady of Beasts. . She resides in the starry regions. Anahita prior to the 4th Century B.C.E. was assimilated with the Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar. Anahita was attributed associations with Venus and having the dominion of love and war as well. The Achaemenid King Artaxerxes II honored Anahita along with Ahura Mazda and Mithra in an inscription, indicating that the Persians were not monotheistic until the Sassanian period. Anaitis had temples in Lydia, Phrygia, Pontus and Cappadocia. The historian Strabo writes that prostitution was practiced at Zela in honor of the goddess. The father of the founder of the Sassanian dynasty, Papak, was a high priest of Anahita at Stakhr. Anahita was also a martial goddess as well; the Sassanians consecrated the heads of their defeated enemies to Anahita as well. In Armenia prior to Christian conversions, Tiridates III worshipped the triad of Aramazd-AnahitVahagn (Ahura MazdaAnahita-Verethraghna). Anahita was given the cult epithet of “voskimayr”, ‘Golden Mother’ and offered to at the cult center of Vahagn located in the Armenian city of Astishat. During the Hellenic period, Anahita is identified with Athena as a goddess of defense and the state. Anahita is also assimilated with Astarte. Anahita may be offered to with libations and incense by the Yatus; during the hours of light with goals including aspects of fertility (not just of body: of mind with creativity, of health, the waters of emotion and renewal and of overcoming obstacles). Mah Maonghah, Men The Yazad presiding over the Moon, representing emotions and to some extent the fertility of the earth with relation to cattle. The Anatolian moon-god Men assimilated many aspects of the Persian Mah. The historian Strabo wrote that the kings of Pontus swore oaths by royal Tyche (Fortune, also related to the personal Daemon in some respects) and Men Pharnakou in the temple of the moongod at Kaberia in Pontus. Tishtrya Tishtar, Tir The Yazata who presides over the star Sirius. Tishtrya also controls the rain. Asman The Yazad presiding over the sky; may be offered to in order sustaining rituals including Ahura Mazda. Daena Den The Female Yazad presiding over the Mazdean religion, also, Inner Self or Conscience in relation to the governing of Fravashi. Sraosha Srosh The enemy of Aeshma whose name means 'Hearkening'; a Yazata who guards the soul for three days after death. Khorshed Khwarshed , Hvare-khshaeta Khwarshed translates 'the shining sun'; the Yazata presiding over the Sun . Ahurani Female Yazad holding power and dominion over water. Haoma Soma, Omomi Haoma is personified as a Yazad presiding over the Haoma plant, which was used in ceremonial intoxication in ceremonies of both deities and humans from Indo-Aryan origins. Indo-Aryan Haoma Airyaman The Yazad of friendship and health, having Indo-Aryan origins. Ushah Female Yazad of the dawn, Ushah is Indo-Iranian in origin. Arshtat Ashtad A Female Yazad personifying justice (based on the Laws of Nature within a Luciferian perspective) and an agreeable outcome in the favor of the Yatus; Arshtat may be invoked in support of goaloriented invocations of Mithra. FRAVASHIS Farohars, Fravashi, Frohar, Fravard, Fravahr Daemon, Genius, Guardian Angel, Soul The Fravashi is the inner power which is inherent in every being according to the ancient Persians; the Fravashi, being this power, is made to grow and sustain through the course of life. The Fravashi is similar to the Latin Manes as also the deified dead. The Zoroastrians viewed the Fravashi as being unique and attached to all life forms including plants, the sky, etc. Ahura Mazda utilizes the power of the Fravashis when creating the substance of creation. The Fravashi is the Achaemenid name of the guardian angel/genius/daemon of deified rulers and socalled ‘pious’ kings and individuals. During the beginnings of the Alexandrian Hellenic syncretism in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and Persia, the cult of the fravashi was nearly identical with the ruler cult. The daemon or fravashi in the ruler cult was based on the idea that the divine attributes of the ruler (embodied in traits and characteristics) were deified on earth as both idea and state of being. The Fravashi, identical to the ‘daimon’ and spirits of the dead offered to by the Greeks in chthonic ritual, is merely separated by slight religious structures emerging with the Zoroastrians. Offerings were made to the Fravashis with the idea that the dead return to their homes and are honored by food being placed on rooftops to propitiate them. Over time, the Fravashi emerged as a wider embodiment including gods and elements such as the earth, water, etc. In the Yasht XXIV the Fravashi is of the “rejoicing fire”, that is the Ahrimanian tradition, “Black Flame” of deified consciousness. As the syncretism of Hellenic and Persian pantheons indicates, Angra Mainyu (assimilated with Haides, King of the Underworld), was a god of darkness who held great power over the spirits of the dead and the rites of necromancy. Like the Zoroastrian traditions that the male is associated with light and the female, darkness, the historian Hippolytus attributes a practice to Zaratas the Chaldean (teacher of Pythagoras) which reflects the Zoroastrian concept. There were two causes of being, a father who was light and a mother who was darkness. Zaratas taught that there are two daimones, a heavenly daimon and a chthonic one. Earth and water is associated with the chthonic daimon and fire and air are associated with the heavenly one. The personality of the individual is not the daemon per se, rather what was guided by the higher faculty of the being. The cult of the daemon in Luciferianism is based around manifesting the “True Will” or inherent desire of the Adept during the course of physical life. Thus, one who discovers his or her “Daemon” would be recognized by the traits and ever-evolving idea of self-excellence. The image and name of the ‘daemon’ is presented symbolically with aesthetic attributes having idealized aspects such as horns (power, wisdom, and leadership), enlarged eyes (divine vision and rule), etc. In Luciferianism, the ‘evil genius’ and ‘daemon’ are identical and different representations of your daemon or fravashi may be created for the magical tradition you work with. One may have a Persianinfluenced image of the fravashi from a Mazdean (Ahura Mazda/Zeus, the sustaining deity representing order in personal life) or the Ahrimanian (the conquering, primal and instinctual demonic) depending on your desire. One within the Egyptian Sethanic tradition may also use an Egyptian influenced design or even a Greco-Roman inspired one. When working with particular pantheons, use the appropriate image of your daemon to actualize the potential of the symbolism. The fravashi “name” of your daemon should have attributes according to your nature. KHVARENAH Divine Glory The concept of the Persian Khvarenah (translated as ‘glory’) is a foundation point in Zoroastrianism. The word defines a visible substance which is possessed by deities and manifests with heroes and rulers. Khvarenah has a beneficent effect on the life and deeds of the individual possessing it. Khvarenah is centered on the Magi of Zoroaster and the Aryan people. This is gained by Zoroastrians who accomplish deeds within their social-moral guidelines and if one acts outside of this ideology, they can lose it as well. The Khvarenah is associated with the concept of the Tyche (Fortune) and daimon, especially with the ruler cults in their various forms, examples being the Achaemenids and Commagene ‘royal tyche’ or ‘royal daimons’. Plutarch, writing in “Life of Artaxerxes” makes reference to a special table set up at banquets, where the royal daimon was offered to as a symbol of the deeds, traits and potential of selfexcellence inspired by the Khvarenah. The Khvarenah has solar associations as well, described by Cyrus as a Sun. FIRE CULTS Zoroastrians have been associated with ‘fire worshipping’ since their religious foundation. While they are not traditionally fireworshippers, the symbolism of fire holds origins to the cult practices of the Aryans and Indians from the Rig Veda to Avestan ritual texts. Ohrmazd brought fire into the physical world; the spirit (menog) of existence was fashioned in the form of bright white fire. This flame, associated with the essence of Ohrmazd himself, is associated with the divine world. In the Avesta there are several grades of fire; potters, cooking fire, hearth fires, gold smiths and the highest class of fire, namely Temple Fires. Fire represents not only the divine but the purifying. BASIC RELIGIOUS FOUNDATION OF THE AVESTA & THEOLOGY OF ZOROASTRIANISM The Achaemenid Zoroastrian religion from the time of Darius I present a solid foundation which allows a glimpse into the idea of the Persian ‘King of Kings’. The Avestan cosmology presents that by an act of primordial sacrifice, Ahura Mazda established Ordered Cosmos. This includes the sun being in the sky, seasons regulated which established a consistent cycle and basis for life. Ahura Mazda is not a simple monotheistic Deific Mask, a circle of Gods and Goddess akin to the concept of biblical ‘angels’ (messengers) in which these deities are ‘swelling power’, (Avestan ‘spenta’) which allows them to produce life. It must be considered that as Luciferians the idea of an absolute (something entirely ‘evil’ or ‘good’) do